You can. Great service gramfeed.com
You can customize the search radius, search day, etc. Convenient.
Flickr also has a geo-search by photo - and you can search both among all users, and only in your contacts. At the moment, there are over 2 million similar photos on the Flickr map: flickr.com
For iOS, there is a Yomapic application that allows you to search for Instagram photos by geolocation. The advantage over the standard Instagram functionality is that you do not need to specify the name of a specific place - you can search for photos directly on the map. apple.com
Not so long ago, Instagram launched the ability to search for photos by geotags - in the search tab, you need to select the "places" sub-tab, and you can search for different geolocations and see what photos were taken in them.
And, of course , a good way to find such photos is to search by tags.