Android also has such tools. The phone can voice those UI elements where you clicked, perform voice commands, and more. However, this all requires support from the developer, so many applications simply do not have this
I can't say anything about Android, because I don't use it. But in iOS there is a whole block of settings for people with disabilities - called "Universal Access". It allows people with various kinds of disorders of organs (not only vision) to use a mobile device quite routinely.
For people with poor eyesight: this is the use of bold type, increased image contrast, special highlighting of buttons, increased fonts and controls , the use of shades of gray instead of colors, or even a complete inversion of color.
There are also dictation, spoken messages by the phone, sounding various kinds of events. The voice assistant, in principle, allows you to answer calls and make them yourself, as well as perform other actions with the phone, without even turning on the screen.