The Russian aircraft industry has some specific problems (the lack of reliable and efficient engines; the crisis of the 90s, when there was practically no opportunity to create and launch new models), but in general, the difficulties of the Russian aircraft industry differ little from the difficulties of aircraft construction in any other country. First of all, they are that the aviation industry is very complex, it has high fixed costs, which means that you need to plan for a long time ahead and be sure that you will sell a lot of aircraft (otherwise, the costs of developing a model will not be covered). In such a situation, aircraft manufacturing (especially when it comes to large airliners, not regional aircraft) is viable only in large and strong economies: Boeing in the United States and Airbus in the European Union (I will leave the question of state support outside the brackets). No other country produces large long-haul aircraft, at best we are talking about regional liners (Embraer, Bombardier, Mitsubishi, etc.). Of course, the Russian economic instability adds problems, but it is difficult to produce aircraft in more stable countries.
We discussed this topic in more detail in the answers and comments to your other question (thequestion.ru).
If we talk about the main difference between Russia and other countries that do not have a developed aircraft industry (and this includes such developed countries as Japan, Australia or Italy), then it lies in the fact that in Soviet times, a lot of aircraft, and the aircraft industry seemed to be booming, and now the industry is in decline. But this is not surprising: as discussed earlier (thequestion.ru), in the USSR, aircraft manufacturers were protected from competition, so they had no incentive to produce economical aircraft. As soon as such protection disappeared, it became extremely difficult to compete with more economical and reliable foreign cars. But, again, this situation is not unique, the whole world flies on Airbus and Boeing, not just Russia.
I think the same ones that most industries in the Russian Federation face - a lack of competent technical personnel, technological backwardness, corruption, lack of deep interest on the part of the state and airlines in the development and production of Russian analogues of Airbus and Boeing.
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